Acute Kidney Injury
Characterized by an abrupt (within 48 hours) decline in kidney function resulting in the retention of urea and other nitrogenous waste products, AKI is associated with substantial morbidity/mortality. The U.S. incidence of AKI is estimated at >1 million patients, and the annual U.S. costs for hospital-acquired AKI are ~$10 billion. This condition can result from a variety of insults, including volume depletion, septicemia, hypotension, high-risk surgeries (e.g., in the elderly), and several types of commonly used drugs (e.g., antibiotics, NSAIDs, chemotherapy). No approved/effective pharmacologic intervention is currently available.
Goldilocks’ initial AKI focus is on cisplatin-induced AKI in head and neck cancer patients, where approximately 50% of the 64,000 U.S. patients treated annually receive the chemotherapy drug cisplatin (i.e., 32,000 patients), and approximately 30% of these individuals develop AKI – thereby resulting in a delay or discontinuation of cisplatin therapy. At a price of $10K per patient as a preventative, the addressable U.S. market size is estimated to be greater than $300MM. That said, the MNP approach could have broad applicability in protecting the kidneys cisplatin-treated cancer patients (~130,000 annually in the U.S.), as well as in AKI due to other causes.